There have been a few posts here mentioning some of the companies as disrupting an industry.
Of course, disruptors are very valuable to invest in as a stock market investor.
In this regard, I found this article to be very insightful - among other points, it explains how a disruptor works, .
When we think of competition, we usually picture symmetric competition. Trees compete on height for sunlight, businesses on price for customers. But you can only grow so tall, or lower prices so much. Competition settles into equilibrium when you run up against physical limits.
Blue-green algae did not win by competing symmetrically with anaerobes. It won by not competing. Photosynthesis was an asymmetric survival strategy. Nothing else did it. The market for sunshine was wide open. The result was a rapid disruption.
Disruptive innovations don’t compete against incumbents, they compete with non-consumption. They start where there is no competition, at the low-end of a market, or in a completely new market. What they offer is not better. It is different. It shifts the basis of competition.